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Nisha Sharma, Dr. Anuja Agarwal, Dr. Y.S. Negi, Hemant Bhardwaj,
Jatin Jaiswal


The review explains the history of ink with special focus on its chemistry, development and recent advances. Art of writing developed in growing civilization with reformation. With the advancement of technology, writing instruments have been developed in a phase wise manner. Though quill, fountain, ball, felt and gel pen have been used and also still in use as writing tools, these varieties of pens also brought changes in ink chemistry. Ink is a liquid, semi liquid or solid material used for writing, painting or drawing by on a support. Throughout history, ink has been made many different colored juices and extracts of plants and animals as well as synthetic materials. Ink for writing and printing dates back to 3200 B.C. when the Egyptians used a mixture of lampblack suspended in vegetable gum. Egyptians and the Greeks used iron oxide to make ink from about 2800 B.C. Ancient, Chinese were making red ink (from mercury sulphate) and black ink (form iron oxide) propylene glycol, propyl alcohol, toluene or glycol ethers. Other ingredients like, resins, preservatives and wetting agent are also added.

Keywords: Quill, Lampblack, Mercury sulphate, Iron oxide.

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