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Mehreen Asghar, *Zafar Saeed Saify, Khwaja Zafar Mehmood Ahmed, Seema Ashraf and Iram lehrasab


Diabetic retinopathy is a major micro vascular complication of Diabetes mellitus that usually leads to blindness in working age adults throughout the world. Risk of Diabetic retinopathy increases in patients of type 1 and type 2 diabetes having hyperglycemia, blood pressure, oxidative stress, inflammation and micro/macrovascular complications. Diabetes effects all the 4 major types of retinal cells and interfere in their proper functioning. The purpose of this study was to understand the pathophysiological pathway behind the development of diabetic retinopathy and initial and long-term effects of insulin treatment on behavior of DR. Contents of this articles are based upon various studies and clinical trials conducted in various countries of the world showing the retinal cells structure, alteration of retinal cells in diabetes, pathophysiology of DR, blood–retinal barrier breakdown, Retinal micro vascular dysfunction and use of Insulin its effect and various other therapies. In addition this study also shows the relationship between the developments of cognitive impairment due to DR. finally, an overview of various drug therapies have also been provided. It showed that in addition to use of insulin to delay the worsening of DR, laser therapy, intravitreal anti- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor treatment, steroidal injections and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors cause significant stabilization or even improvement from diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that now a days in young adults DR is a challenging disease to manage due the high prevalence of Diabetes mellitus. This review demonstrates that with the current concepts and novel therapeutic approaches diabetic retinopathy can be manage. Regular screening examination and self-monitoring of blood glucose can reduce the extent of DR related visual impairment. Other new therapies are in pipeline, and forthcoming randomized clinical trials are required to study the effect of all these novel therapies.

Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), Diabetes Mellitus (DM).

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