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Mr. Vijay Kumar Singh*, Utkarsh Singh, Ashutosh Mishra, Dinesh Chandra,Rajesh Sahu


Historically, the oral route of drug administration has been the one used most for both conventional as well as novel drug delivery. The reasons for this preference are obvious because of the ease of administration and widespread acceptance by patients. Drugs taken orally for systemic effects have variable absorption rates and variable serum concentrations which may be unpredictable. This has led to the development of sustained release and controlled-release systems. The high acid content and ubiquitous digestive enzymes of the digestive tract can degrade some drugs well before they reach the site of absorption into the bloodstream. This is a particular problem for ingested proteins. Therefore, this route has limitations for administration of biotechnology products. Many macromolecules and polar compounds cannot effectively traverse the cells of the epithelial membrane in the small intestines to reach the bloodstream. Their use is limited to local effect in the gastrointestinal tract. Many drugs become insoluble at the low pH levels encountered in the digestive tract. Since only the soluble form of the drug can be absorbed into the bloodstream, the transition of the drug to the insoluble form can significantly reduce bioavailability. The drug may be inactivated in the liver on its way to the systemic circulation. An example of this is the inactivation of glyceryltrinitrate by hepatic monoxygenase enzymes during the first pass metabolism. Some drugs irritate the gastrointestinal tract and this is partially counteracted by coating. Oral route may not be suitable for drugs targeted to specific organs. Despite disadvantages, the oral route remains the preferred route of drug delivery. Several improvements have taken place in the formulation of drugs for oral delivery for improving their action.

Keywords: Mouth Dissolving Tablet, Synthetic Superdisintegrants, Natural Superdisintegrants.

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