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Mhamad-Aly Moussawi, Akram Hijazi, *, Hussein Hamad, Hassan Rammal,Wassim Rammal, Mohamad Alameh, Daoud Naoufal


Many industries use synthetic dyes and pigments that may find their way into natural waterways [1].Reactive dyes, an anionic or cationic dye, are most commonly used due to their provision of bright colors, excellent color fastness, and easy application. However, many reactive dyes are toxic to organisms and may cause direct harm to aquatic life. Accumulation of these dyes in wastewater from industries such as textiles, paper, cosmetics, rubber, and plastics has been regarded as a significant source of water pollution [2].Discharge of colored wastewater without proper treatment can results in numerous problems such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) by the water body and an increase in toxicity. Currently, there are about 10,000 different commercial dyes and pigments exist and over 7x105 tones of synthetic dyes are produced annually world-wide [3].Furthermore, dyes in Waste water are difficult to remove because they are stable to light, heat and oxidizing agents. In short, they are not easily degradable [4]. Moreover, their degradation products may be mutagenic and carcinogenic [5]. Many dyes may cause allergic dermatitis, skin irritation, dysfunction of kidney, liver, brain, reproductive and central nervous system[6]. Organic dyes are harmful to human beings, the need to remove color from wastewater effluents become environmentally important. It is rather difficult to treat dye effluents because of their synthetic origins and mainly aromatic structures, which are biologically non-degradable. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption process is one of the effective techniques that have been successfully employed for color removal from wastewater [7]. Numerous treatment processes are now available for effluent discharged from industrial processes containing dyes as:adsorption[8], chemical oxidation[9], electrolysis [10],biodegradation [11], and photo-catalysis[12]. Among all the physical treatments, adsorption process has been reported to be the most effective method for water decontamination [13]. The removal of methylene blue from wastewater needs great attention. In this present study, scabiosaprolifera(Carmel Daisy) has been utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The sorption data have also been correlated with adsorption isotherms and kinetics of adsorption has been studied to determine the efficiency of an adsorption process.

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