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Abstract

AMPLIFIED REVIEW REFLECTING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THERAPEUTIC CANCER VACCINES

Aliya Parveen* , Amtullah Amena Ahmed , Rumaisa Saher, Arshee Banu ,Mehjabeen  Syed.Azizullah Ghori 

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a group of disease characterized by abnormal, excessive, uncoordinated, autonomous and purposeless proliferation of cells. In spite of significant development in the cancer therapy, it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. According to American Cancer Society in 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and 585,720 cancer deaths in the US. According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), parts of WHO effective preventive measures like vaccination, diet etc. are the only way to prevent cancer crisis. About 50% of the cancer cases can be reduced by vaccination alone. Cancer vaccines are the biological preparations that are used to prevent the cancer in high risk individuals (preventive vaccines) or to treat the disease that already exists (Therapeutic Vaccines). These vaccines aim to recognize the antigens expressed in tumor cells and destroy them leaving the normal cells intact by priming Ag-specific T cells and reprogramming memory T cells. Research in molecular biology and immunology has resulted in the development of a range of recombinant vaccines viz., antigen, tumor cell, anti - idiotype antibody-based, dendritic cell-, DNA-, and viral- vector based- vaccines. Cancer vaccine are ineffective due to immunological barriers like mutations and tolerance, lack of awareness, inappropriate choice of tumor antigen or unoptimised antigen delivery system or vaccination schedule or selection of wrong patient group. More research is required to overcome the potential limitations of vaccines. These new vaccines along with those in use may substantially reduce the global mortality from cancer and proveto be a savior to mankind.

Keywords: Cancer Vaccines, Recombinant vaccines, Immunological Barriers, Therapeutic Vaccines, IARC.


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