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S. Gopinathan*, V. Rebido Vijila and D. Naveenraj


Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosurea and hyperlipidemia and its pathogenesis is mainly due to the deficiency or diminished efficiency of insulin. Because of accumulation of free radicals and impaired antioxidant activities, diabetes has significantly elevated the level of oxidative stress and this contributes to most of the neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. Herbal drugs are gradually gaining popularity and importance in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, because of the antioxidant potential of their phytoconstituents. Objectives: In our earlier study on the antidiabetic activity of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract on alloxan induced diabetic rats we noticed the oxidative stress due to hyperglycaemia. So the present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract against oxidative stress on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic rats. Experimental design: Albino Wistar rats used for this study were divided into 4 groups. Group I: Healthy control; Group II: Disease control- animals were administrated alloxan (150 mg / kg-bw) to induce diabetes mellitus. Group III: Diabetic animals treated with Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract (400mg/kg-bw). Group IV: Diabetic animals treated with glibenclamide (10mg/kg-bw). The diabetic animals were developed oxidative stress due to hyperglycaemia and Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract protected the rats from oxidative stress. The following parameters were studied to substantiate our claim. (1) Biochemical parameters: blood glucose, serum insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, total protein in serum and liver tissues, liver glycogen, serum urea and creatinine; (2) Liver function marker enzymes: AST, ALT and ALP; (3) Biomarkers of oxidative stress: endogenous antioxidants like GSH and LPO, and in vivo antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GPx (4) oxidative biomarkers like nitrite in serum and liver (measure for nitric oxide activity), and protein carbonyls to understand the protein oxidation due to free radical activity. Results: Oral administration of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract on alloxan induced diabetic rats showed a significant restoration of all the parameters. Regeneration of insulin secretion and improvement in insulin action were noticed. Amelioration in the level of biological antioxidants and significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded. Conclusion: Treatment of experimentally diabetic rats with Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract brought back the normalization in all the deranged parameters. Restoration of antioxidant biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes showed that Clerodendrum phlomidis extract is a potential antidiabetic agent and also proved its efficacy in providing protection against oxidative stress. It is concluded that the phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins available in the extract may be responsible for its antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Ursolic acid was isolated and identified as a pharmacologically active antioxidant compound.

Keywords: Clerodendrum phlomidis, Oxidative stress, hyperglycaemia, free radicals, antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, ursolic acid.

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