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Abstract

DOG BITE AND CLINICAL RABIES IN A SUBURBAN HOSPITAL IN NIGERIA: A 20-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE AND TREATMENT WITH ANTI-RABIES VACCINE.

Iyalomhe GBS*, Iyalomhe SI

ABSTRACT

Although dog bites that result in human rabies constitute a serious public health hazard at Auchi, the prevalence and treatment outcome are unknown. Therefore, this 20-year retrospective study was aimed at determining the prevalence and treatment outcome of dog bite injuries using anti-rabies vaccine at Osigbemhe Hospital, Auchi. Case records of patients managed at the hospital between January 1994 and January 2014 with the diagnosis of dog bite and rabies were retrieved. Relevant clinical data were extracted. Forty seven patients presented with dog bite injuries including four clinical cases of human rabies who died. Mean age of victims of dog bite was 21.8±14.6 years and the range was 2-54 years. The majority (51.1%) were children (0-10) years. Males (63.8%) were more affected than females (36.2%). The lower limbs and trunk/buttocks injuries were significantly higher than other sites. Most injuries (33%) were high risk (type III). Bite wounds (91.5%) were washed with water as well as irrigated with saline and some (21%) were disinfected. Debridement and suturing were done in some cases (44.7%) and 91.5% received postexposure anti-rabies vaccine. Other medications including analgesics, antibiotics and intravenous fluids were administered as indicated. In conclusion, though the prevalence of dog bite injuries was low, the use of anti-rabies vaccine with demonstrated clinical efficacy, was high (91.5%). Improved surveillance, availability and affordability of vaccines for pre- and post- exposure prophylaxis as well as interventions to prevent dog bite related injuries, particularly among children, are imperative.

Keywords: Dog bite, Clinical rabies, Treatment of dog bite, Postexposure prophylaxis, Anti-rabies vaccine.


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