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Abstract

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF LIQUID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION FOR ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES: A REVIEW

I A S Shaikh, C V Panchal*, J A Munde, B N Poul

ABSTRACT

Techniques of Microextraction are defined as non-exhaustive sample preparation methods that utilise a very small volume of the extracting phase (in the range of μL) relative to the sample volume.[1] Solvent microextraction (SME) is a technique for sample preparation involving the extraction and concentration of liquid, gaseous and solid samples with solvent volumes in the μL or sub-μL range, thereby enabling high enrichment factors. The term liquid phase microextraction (LPME) is also frequently used to describe this process[2] It is well known that pesticides have the potential to prevent and control harmful organisms being a powerful tool to agricultural problems. It has been estimated that around one-third of the crop production would be lost if chemical substances were not applied against pests[3] so Nowadays, pesticides are one of the most prevalent environmental pollutants. Detection of pesticides and their metabolites in environmental water is an important task, In the European Community (EC), Directive 2000/60/EC[4] established a framework for the protection of waters. This Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to reduce and to eliminate the presence of substances in the aquatic environment that have been considered by the Commission as toxic, persistent and liable to bio-accumulate. Such substances, named as priority substances and priority hazardous substances[4,5] The first step in any instrumental analysis is sample preparation, which involves the isolation or extraction of the desired analytes from the sample matrix, since they are present at trace concentration (usually μg.kg or less). This helps in the elimination of any interferences and also reduces the volume of extracts, thereby concentrating the analytes.[6] The type, nature and composition of sample and the nature and concentration of analytes to be isolated or extracted determines the choice of separation and

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