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Abstract

ANTIBACTERIAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE LEAF AND ROOT BARK EXTRACT OF BAPHIA NITIDA ON BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH WOUND AND ENTERIC INFECTIONS.

Eze V.C*, Ezeja M.I, Onoja S.O and Obi O.I.

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial, phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the leave and root bark extract of Baphia nitida on bacteria associated with wound and enteric infections was screened. The test organisms were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica. The extracts were screened for their phytochemical composition using standard method and antioxidant properties was done using 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) photometric assay. The extracts were prepared with absolute methanol and distilled water using cold maceration method. The antibacterial susceptibility test was carried out using the disc diffusion method with Muller Hinton agar. Salmonella enterica showed a high susceptibility to the leaves extracts but was resistant to the root extracts. Escherichia coli and S. aureus showed resistance to both the leaves and root extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were carried out using the tube test method with nutrient broth. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the methanolic extract of the leaves on S. enterica was shown to be 12.5 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively while the water extract was seen to be 25 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively. The Phytochemical analysis showed that saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, sterols, terpenes, alkaloids and tannins were present. The aqueous extract of the root bark had the highest concentration of saponins while the methanol extract of the leave had the least concentration of saponins. The extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity, at 400 μg/ml concentration, the methanolic extact Baphia nitida leave produced the highest mean percentage antioxidant activity of 51.26 while the aqueous extract of Baphia nitida root had the least activity of 11.92 compared to ascorbic acid. It is therefore recommended that the leave extract of Baphia nitida could be used as an alternative for the treatment of Salmonella enterica related infection.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Baphia nitida, antioxidant, phytochemical, extract, wound.


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