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Fadli A.*, Nizam A. G., Ibrahim A., Nurulnadiah A. K., Jiyauddin K., Samer A. D., S. Budiasih, M. Kaleemullah, Jawad A., Rasha S., Todo H., Sugibayashi K. and Eddy Y.


Nano-emulsions are one of the various forms of nano-pharmaceuticals that have been used in the process of development. Nano-emulsions are isotropically clear dispersion of two immiscible liquids such as water and oil which is thermodynamically stable and stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactant molecules. Typically the dispersion phase of the nano-emulsion consists of small particles or droplets that have size range of 5 nm to 200 nm. Antimicrobial nano-emulsion has a broad spectrum activity against bacteria, enveloped viruses, fungi and spores. Antimicrobial nano-emulsion has the droplet sizes that range from 200 nm to 600 nm and usually in the form of oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Oil-in-water nano-emulsion can easily permeate into the skin. The active ingredient in oil phase of oil-in-water nano-emulsion is protected from hydrolysis and oxidation as they are not exposed to attack by water and air. The aim of this study was conduct to do formulation of tetracycline nano-emulsion. It was done by constructing the phase diagram as the first step and followed by the preparation of nanoemulsion by using the method of phase inversion of emulsion. As to produce nano-emulsion, a reasonable concentration of surfactant, water and oil concentration was used. Formulation 8 which consists of 10% of oil concentration, 70% of water concentration and 20% of Smix (surfactant and co-surfactant) had a creamy appearance but producing a size range of 405 nm. The droplets of formulation 8 are in between the droplets size of antimicrobial nano-emulsion which the sizes range from 200 nm to 600 nm. In different temperature, the viscosity of the formulation 8 is varied. The calculated P value for the viscosity for the three formulations is 0.7523. This means that the temperature do affect the viscosity. For formulation 8, the viscosity increased in low temperature and whilst in high temperature the viscosity decreased.

Keywords: Nano-emulsion, Tetracycline, Droplet size, Viscosity and Surfactants.

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