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Prof. Chakrapany Sharma*, Dr. Chandan Singh


Ayurveda considers each human being as a distinct individual born
with unique physiological/metabolic characteristics (most of which
remain constant throughout life). These distinct characteristics, which
contribute to the physical, physiological (metabolic) and psychological
make-up of each individual, are described under the term Prakriti in
Ayurveda. According to Ayurvedic pharmacology the drug action is
attributed to certain principles/attributes namely Rasa, Guna, Virya,
Vipaka and Prabhava of the active principles of the drug. Literally the
term VIPAKA means - The final outcome of the biotransformation of
the rasa of a given dravya through the action of jatharagni (digestive
enzymes) i.e. end-product or the transformed state of ingested
substance after digestion or metabolism is known as „Vipaka‟. As
refers Ayurveda, there are 13 kinds of “Agni” (1 Jatharagni + 7
Dhatvagni + 5 Bhootagni), so it is important to understand first the meaning of the term -
“Agni”. Agni converts food in the form of energy, which is responsible for all the vital
functions of our body. Jatharagni Paka (Gastro intestinal digestion) is described as Avastha -
paka in Ayurveda. The process of vipaka starts in (dueodinum) grahani. The site (Adhikaran)
of action of vipaka is described in text as: „Antahkoshte pakwashaye madhyamamarge
mutrashaye tatha dhatushu cha drushyate ‟. Ayurveda refers that the assessment of Vipaka
can be determined by the presumption. Thus it can be said that the Vipaka can be assessed by
its (action performing) karma on body humors (dosha) , It can be interpreted that the
Mechanical Digestion accomplishes in (Abdomen) koshta & Chemical digestion
accomplishes at (formation of body tissues, starting from the lymph) dhatu level . The term
“Pharmacokinetics‟ denotes to “What body does to the drug”? The various compartments that the model is divided into are commonly referred to as the ADME scheme. The pharmacodynamic & kinetic actions of ayurvedic drugs (single & compound) are difficult to explain in terms of modern pharmacology. It is not the single chemical entity as in case allopathic drugs, acts as a receptor & elicits a response. Bio-availability of a drug (availability of biologically active drug) is defined as the amount or percentage of drug that is absorbed from a given dosage forms and reaches the systemic circulation following non-vascular administration. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. There are several mechanisms of action by which herbal bioenhancers act. Different herbal bioenhancers may have same or different mechanism of action. The paper is an attempt to explore the facts and findings on VIPAKA for understanding and interpretation of the theory v/s Pharmacokinetics.

Keywords: Ayurveda, Vipaka, Agni, Jatharagni, Bhootagni, Dhatvagni, ADME, Bioenhancer.

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