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Urvashi Mehlawat*


Aim: Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal human growth and development as it is needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones produced by thyroid glands. The deficiency of Iodine leads to a number of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). In India by, 167 million people are at risk of IDD, 54.4 million people have goiter, and 8.8 million people have IDD-related mental / motor handicaps. Therefore, the present review article aims to assess the prevalence of Goiter (Iodine Deficiency Disorders) amongst school age children in India to generate more scientific evidence which would help in further research in this context. Methods: Globally, India has the largest number of children born vulnerable to iodine-deficiency. School age children are an especially useful population group for the assessment of IDD, both because of their physiological vulnerability and their accessibility through schools. To collect the relevant scientific evidence for the present review article, databases such as pub med, Google scholar were accessed. Results: The scientific findings reveal that in India the highest prevalence of Goiter amongst school age children is in Karnataka (30%) followed by Himachal Pradesh (Kullu-23.4%; Kangra-15.8%). Conclusion: Goiter is a major problem in developing countries like India but from the scientific evidence it can be concluded that overall, India is in a phase of transition from Iodine inadequacy to adequacy.

Keywords: Goiter, Inadequacy, Iodine, Micronutrient, Thyroid Gland, Transition.

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