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Abstract

A CONCISE REVIEW ON CARBON NANOTUBES AS A NOVEL APPROACH FOR VACCINE DELIVERY

Anu Nair*, Viral Shah and Dasharath Chaudhari

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the preparations given to conjure infectious agents or noninfectious conditions such as malignancies in patients, by stimulating body‘s immune responses through production of antibodies (humoral) or cell-mediated responses. Conventional vaccination regimen have raised concerns like low safety profile of live vaccines, weak subunit Vaccines immunogenicity and immunization failure due to poor patient compliance to booster doses. Currently profound research is focused towards the delivery carriers of vaccines with a goal to identify delivery system that can target antigens to the immune system and hold the potential to eliminate the administration of high booster and prime doses. A vaccine delivery system that can sustain and target the release of the antigen and could achieve temporal and spatial presentation of antigens to immune system thereby lowering the dose of weak immunogens is the present need of the hour. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are delivery carriers entirely made up of carbon and often referred as ―zero dimensional‖ objects because of their geometry. CNTs have gained a tremendous focus as delivery system in the 21st century due to its unique properties of nano size that is small enough to be readily internalized by cells and amazing optical, magnetic and electric properties when used alone or with additions of metals. CNTs can be readily surface functionalized to achieve desirable properties as drug delivery carriers for vaccines and other proteins and peptides. The present paper reviews different conventional modes of delivery of vaccines along with different dosage forms for vaccine delivery along with their limitations. The review emphasizes on CNTs as potential drug delivery carrier for vaccines and provides a descriptive compilation on different types of CNTs, their preparation and purification methods, surface functionalisation approaches and their characterization parameters.

Keywords: Carbon nano tube, protein and peptides, vaccine delivery, dosage forms, drug delivery systems.


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