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K. D. Rakholiya*, J. B. Kathiriya, V. D. Vora, G. S. Sutaria, K. N. Akbari, M. J. Kaneria


Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Herbivores are the natural host. Anthrax kills many animal species. Human acquire the disease incidentally by contact with infected animal or animal products. The incidence of disease has decreased dramatically in developed countries as a result of animal vaccination programs and improved industrial hygiene. Three forms of anthrax are naturally occurring, namely; cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational. About 95% of human anthrax is cutaneous and 5% respiratory. Gastrointestinal anthrax is very rare, and has been reported in less than 1% of all cases. Diagnosis can be made by Gram stain, stool samples, blood tests, skin tests or by culture of body fluids or lesions. Serologic tests including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction are available in specialized laboratories. Penicillin is the drug of choice for the treatment of anthrax infections. Other acceptable alternatives include ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin and doxycycline. Combination of drug also used and alternative source is medicinal plant to treat anthrax disease. There is need for new, safe and effective treatments to supplement traditional antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: Anthrax, cattle, Gastrointestinal, cutaneous, spore, Bacillus anthracis.

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