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Abstract

DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ORAL GELS AND VAGINAL PESSARIES FROM CRUDE EXTRACTS OF FOUR GHANAIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS INTENDED FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANDIDIASIS

Samuel Lugrie Kipo*, Yaa Gyamfuaa Osei, Noble Kuntworbe, Marcel Tunkumgnen Bayor, Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye, Mariam El Boakye-Gyasi

ABSTRACT

Candidiasis is caused by the fungus candida and affects various parts of the body especially the vagina and the mouth. G-Rea® is a herbal mixture marketed in Ghana for the treatment of various candida infections. G-Rea® is prepared from various parts of four Ghanaian medicinal plants, namely: Hoslundia opposita, Alstonia boonei, Combretum smeathmanii and Securidaca longepedunculata. The current study was to compare the physicochemical and pharmaceutical characteristics of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of these plants and to develop them into vaginal pessaries and oral gels. Dried aqueous (A) and ethanolic (E) extracts were prepared by decoction and cold maceration respectively, and their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Extract (E) was formulated into oral gels and vaginal pessaries using glycerogelatine and theobroma oil as bases. The quality and antimicrobial properties of the formulations were evaluated against a number of microbes. A higher yield (17.3 %w/w) of ethanol extract was obtained compared to that of aqueous extract (9.51 %w/w). Both (A) and (E) were comparable in their organoleptic characteristics. Flavonoids were present in (E) in addition to other phyto-constituents present in (A). Both (A) and (E) showed activities against S. aureus, B. subtillis and C. albicans. Extract (E) generally showed wider zones of inhibition compared to (A) of same concentrations except against S. aureus. Oral gels (10 %w/w) and glycerogelatine vaginal pessaries of (E), were stable, elegant and active against susceptible organisms. The study showed the successful formulation of the ethanolic extract of the four Ghanaian medicinal plants into oral gels and vaginal pessaries with demonstrable physicochemical quality and antimicrobial efficacy.

Keywords: Candidiasis, herbal products, ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, oral gel, vaginal pessaries.


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