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Abstract

BLOODSTAIN PATTERN ANALYSIS - AN OVERVIEW

S. Asadulla*, S. Arshiya Banu and P. Salomi

ABSTRACT

Bloodstain pattern analysis is one of the most challenging area in Forensic science. The main objective of this is to get information about the crime scene under investigation. It is a powerful tool used in solving violent crimes and must be performed by well-trained individuals. It is one of the most effective methods of reconstructing the crime scene available to forensic science. The Methodology includes DNA sample processes involving biology, technology and genetics. In Biology, collection of biological material from a crime scene and Isolation of DNA from its cells is carried out and the specific regions are copied by PCR (Polymerase chain reaction). Technology includes separation and detection of DNA by using various techniques like Slab gel electrophoresis and Capillary electrophoresis etc, and Genetics include comparison of genotypes. In this case the combination of individual STR genotypes (crime scene evidence) is compared with that of reference samples such as victims or suspect and as so in paternity investigations, a child's genotype would be compared to his or her mother's and the alleged father(s) under investigation. Finally a case report or paternity test result is generated. This report typically includes the random match probability to denote whether it is not matched or matched. The results of Bloodstain pattern analysis involves DNA analysis through which suspect can be caught with witness. The technique mainly used for DNA Fragmentation is Slab gel electrophoresis and Capillary gel electrophoresis and the types of DNA evidence analysis includes Polymerase chain reaction(PCR), Restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP), Short Tandem Repeats(STR) and Mitochondrial DNA analysis.

Keywords: Bloodstains, DNA analysis, Crime investigation, Forensic Science.


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