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Abstract

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN THE FIELD OF MEDICINE

Patric Joshua P*, Veerendra V, Rajesh M

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size on a nanometer scale. Nanoparticles have different physical and chemical characteristics compared to their larger equivalents because of a very high surface to mass ratio, physical activity and chemical stability. Nanoparticles can be broadly grouped as organic and inorganic nanoparticles. Due to various advancements in nano technology it has been used in the field of medicine like delivering drug across blood barrier system, targeted drug delivery system, repair and regeneration of tissues, hearing and vision, disease diagnosis and health monitoring. Magnetic nanoparticles are also used in targeted therapy where a cytotoxic drug is attached to a biocompatible magnetic nanoparticle. Nanoparticles have also been incorporated in cloth which has shown promise to be sterile and thus helping in minimizing infections. Bioremediation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and nuclear weapon production, such as uranium has been achieved using nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have more suface to mass ratio when compared to conventional normal forms. Nanoparticles are less toxic than their conventional normal form. Nanoparticles can cross blood-brain barrier system and can penetrate through deep tissues due to its smaller size as that of biological molecules within the body.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, nanometer scale, targeted drug delivery.


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