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Abstract

EFFICIENCY OF THE ALGAE SPIRULINA PLATENSIS AS ANTIDIABETIC AGENT

Nadia S Metwally, Amany S Maghraby, Ebtehal K Farrag1, Hanaa H Abd El Baky, Abdel Razek H. Farrag, Doaa S Foda1, Sayed M Rawi 

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to define the effect of the green algae Spirulina platensis on rats as antidiabetic agent. A comparison between amaryl, a currently available antidiabetic drug and the algae was studied. Some biochemical and immunological parameters were investigated in this study. Also histological and immunohistochemical investigations were performed. Rats were divided into 6 groups. Group1 is considered as naïve animals. Group 2 The diabetic non treated group injected with a single dose (45 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin (STZ) for three days. Group 3 The pre-treated group orally administrated algae (15 mg/kg body weight) daily for three weeks. Group 4 orally administered with 15 mg/kg body weight for three weeks then injected with STZ. Group 5 The post –treated group intraperitoneally injected with STZ then treated with algae for 4 weeks. Group 6 injected intrraperitoneally with STZ then treated with the drug amaryl at a dose of 0.15 mg/ kg body weight for 4 weeks. Results showed that oral administration of the present algae modulated the diabetic increase in blood glucose level revealing the antihyperglycemic effect of the used algae. It effectively increased insulin and albumin concentrations and decreased the total cholesterol and triglycerides levels with consequence decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Furthermore, it decreased lipid peroxidation product MDA and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase. Treatment of diabetic animals with amaryl drug improved diabetic induced altertions in most of the above studied markers. The immunological data showed that spirulina had no effect on the mean number of thymocytes. Diabetes affected the mean number of thymocytes as it decreased non significantly compared to the naïve group. this decrease was restored by spirulina either in the pre or post- treated groups. Spirulina showed a neutral effect on the mean number of splenocytes. Small improvement was observed in the splenocytes number in the pre- and post-treated algae groups compared to diabetic non treated group. The IgG level in sera from spirulina pre-treated group showed more improvement levels as compared to control. Post alga-treated group showed decrease in IgG level compared to diabetic non treated group. Microscopic investigations of the pancreas of rats given spirulina before diabetes induction showed the normal structure of the exocrine and endocrine component. The pre-treated spirulina diabetic groups showed an unchanged immunoreactivity for insulin as compared to the control group. On the other hand there was a reduction in the immunoreactivity for insulin in spirulina post-treated groups. A reduction in the immunoreactivety for glucagon was observed in the pre-and post-treated spirulina diabetic group. It could be concluded that the current algae has multi-beneficial actions in controlling diabetes and consequence complications induced in pancreas and liver and may be candidate as natural antidiabetic drug.

Keywords: Diabetes- Streptozotocin- Spirulina- Glucose – Amaryl- Thymocytes- splenocytes- IgG.


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