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World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR) will give best paper award in every issue in the form of money along with certificate to promote research activity of scholar.
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Dr. Muhammad Baqir MR Fakhrildin
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Ruya Jaafar Hussein*


The field of integrated optics has changed considerably in the past 12 years. where The dimensions of photonic devices to be integrated have decreased by several orders of magnitude as belonging to the field of micro photonics, since they involved photons of light interacting with physical structures having dimensions mostly on the order of micrometers. a number of new areas in the general field of integrated optics have gained prominence. The telecommunication industry has continued the implementation of fiber-optic networks, not only for trunk lines but also to bring optical fiber waveguides to the office and home. This widespread use of optical fibers has created a demand for effective, but relatively inexpensive, optical amplifiers, couplers, and switches. This demand has been met by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and by couplers and switches fabricated in glasses and in polymer materials. New systems have been developed that incorporate micro machined mechanical elements along with optical and electronic devices in an integrated structure.

Keywords: Integrated optics Optical networks waveguide Restoration Network provisioning.

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