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Vd. Shweta Telang*, Leena Dafne, Vd. Pradip Awale, Vd. Sharmili Suryavanshi, Vd. Hitesh Chaudhari, Vd. Amit Nakanekar


The Ayurvedic parameters for physico chemical characterization of Bhasma have been mentioned in the classical texts of Rasashastra (Science of Herbo-metallic medicines). With the advent of Nanotechnology in the 21st century, the traditional drug design and drug delivery are being viewed in new light. A characterization strategy for Bhasmas includes physicochemical characterization, sterility and pyrogenicity assessment, biodistribution (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and toxicity characterization, which includes both in vitro tests and in vivo animal studies. However, assessing Ayurvedic Bhasma on modern parameters poses considerable challenges for researchers due to practical difficulties in its physico chemical characterization. There is lack of uniformity in criteria followed for physico chemical characterization studies related to Bhasma. We reviewed the literature in the Classical Text books of Ayurveda as well as that published in National and international journals and for studies on physico chemical characterization of Bhasma. Here, we have summarized work related to the physicochemical characterization for Bhasmas that may substantiate Bhasma as ancient nanomedicines. We have also provided a comprehensive list of tests essential for physico-chemical characterization along with their working principles and applications in relevance to Bhasma. Based on the review of 7 Bhasmas which were most commonly researched and published i.e. Swarnamakshika (Copper iron pyrite) Swarna (Gold), Naga (Lead) Muktashouktik (Mother of Pearl) Jasad (Zinc) Lauha (Iron) and Abhraka (Mica). We have also outlined a possible methodology for characterizing Bhasma on modern analytical parameters for similar other Bhasmas.

Keywords: Bhasma, nanomedicine, physicochemical characterization, ancient traditional drug.

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