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Abstract

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME HOUSEHOLD DISINFECTANTS ON SELECTED HUMAN PATHOGENS IN UMUAHIA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA.

*Obi C. N. and Onyekaozuru A. O.

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans to each of five selected household disinfectants (Dettol, Izal, Z-Germicide, Jik and EDN® Hand sanitizer) was determined using agar diffusion method. Phenol coefficients were used to compare the effectiveness of these disinfectants against phenol. Jik disinfectant was inhibitory against Salmonella typhi (P<0.05) and C. albicans at 1:2 dilution respectively with MIC value of 1:64 dilution against E. coli and 1:4 dilution for C. albicans. Dettol was biocidal to E. coli, S. typhi and C. albicans with MIC value of 1:512 dilution against E. coli and 1:256 dilution for C. albicans. Z-germicide was inhibitory against S. typhi (P<0.05) with a bacteriocidal MIC of 1:64 dilution and fungicidal MIC of 1:32 dilution. Izal inhibited Candidia albicans at MIC of 1:32, but inhibited S. typhi and E. coli at 1:4 dilution respectively but did not inhibit S. aureus even at 1:2 dilution. EDN® Hand Sanitizer had MIC values of <1:1024 for both the bacterial isolates and C. albicans and at the lowest dilution inhibited S. aureus (P<0.05). This MIC value was the lowest recorded against the four disinfectants analysed in the work. At 100% concentration, EDN® Hand Sanitizer has the greatest inhibition against S. typhi, S. aureus and E. coli (53.00a±1.41mm, 53.00a±0.71mm and 48.00b±0.71mm respectively: P<0.05) while Jik has the highest inhibition against C. albicans (76.00±1.41mm: P<0.05). Among all the tested disinfectants, Izal gave the least inhibition (18.00±0.71mm) against E. coli and 10.00±0.71mm against C. albicans. EDN® Hand Sanitizer also has the highest Phenol coefficient (Pc) value of 7 against E. coli and C. albicans respectively while Izal had zero Pc value against S. aureus and C. albicans respectively. All the disinfectants inhibited the four test isolates thus confirming their broad spectrum activity, but only EDN® Hand Sanitizer, Jik, Dettol and Z-germicide did so upon dilution thus confirming their broad spectrum activity. EDN® Hand Sanitizer is encouraged to be used in homes to prevent the transfer of pathogens at close contacts with persons.

Keywords: Bacteria, Candida albicans, disinfectants, phenol coefficient, susceptibility.


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