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Ajulo MO*1, Omole KO 2, Dixon-Umo OT 3, Oloyede I 3, Moody JO 4

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria.
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria.
3Department of Paediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria.
4Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria.


Provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis to pregnant women living with HIV has prevented more than 350,000 children from acquiring HIV infection since 1995. Aim of the study is to detect the effect of HAART on kidney and liver of children aged 0-5 years in South-south Nigeria. The study was granted ethical approval by University of Uyo Teaching Hospital and Emmanuel General Hospital Eket. Fifty children were enrolled for the study after consent was given by their care-givers. They were divided into four groups. The first group consisted of asymptomatic HIV infected children receiving HAART combination, 3TC+NVP+ZDV. The second group consisted of exposed children who received nevirapine for six weeks and later continued with cotrimoxazole. The third group consisted of HIV positive children with uncompromised immunity receiving cotrimoxazole. The fourth group comprised the control children who did not receive any drug. A 2ml blood was collected from each participant and separated to obtain serum. Sera were analyzed with Randox ALT, AST and creatinine kits. The result showed that seventeen participants (50%) in Group I had elevated liver enzyme ALT while two participants (20%) had elevated ALT in Group II and none among the control children had elevated ALT. Twenty-eight (82.35%) participants had elevated liver enzyme AST in Group I, eight participants (80%) in Group II and three (60%) participants in Group IV. Fourteen (41.18%) boys and six girls (17.65%) in Group I had abnormal serum creatinine values, Four boys (40%) and four girls (40%) in Group II and two (40%) boys in Group IV also had abnormal serum creatinine value. Sixteen (47.06%) boys and eleven (32.35%) girls had abnormal creatinine clearance in Group I, four (40%) boys and five (50%) girls had abnormal creatinine clearance in Group II. Two (40%) boys and two (40%) girls had abnormal creatinine clearance in Group IV. Statistical analysis of variance at confidence interval of 90%, ALT (p = .073) and serum creatinine (p = .095) were significantly higher in Group I than Group IV. The study showed that HAART combination had significant severe effect on liver and kidney function of children from zero to five years.

Keywords: Liver, Kidney, HAART, ALT, AST, Creatinine, Antiretroviral.

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