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Abstract

MATERNAL ALLOANTIBODIES AND FOETAL COMPLICATIONS IN JIMMA SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL, SOUTH-WESTERN ETHIOPIA

Dr. Sureshkumar P. Nair*, Dr. Hailemariam Segni and Mehidi Kassim

ABSTRACT

Alloimmunization of RhD negative mothers may lead to haemolytic disease of the foetus and new born. This is one of the reasons behind foetal loss and death. Even though this problem is well studied, well explained in medical literature and well known to the medical professionals, it remains as a serious problem in many developing countries either due to the lack of infrastructure or due to the poor socio-economic conditions of the population all over the world. However, in Ethiopia, the prevalence of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn and risk factors behind this problem has not been studied yet. This is a prospective longitudinal hospital based study focused on 3679 maternity patients who visited the Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia, during the time November 2013 to November 2014. Response rate was 100%. Out of this 231 were RhD negative mothers. This RhD negative subgroup population and their new born babies were studied to reveal the foetal outcome, alloimmunization status and the contributing factors for haemolytic disease of foetus and new born. The prevalence of RhD negativity was 6.3% and weak-D was 1.3% of RhD negative mothers. RhD alloimmunization prevalence was 4.5% in urban and 9.8% in rural RhD negative population. Still birth among the study population was 12.0%. Among RhD alloimmunized mothers, still birth rate was 46.2%. Pearsons Chi-square test shows a significant association between alloimmunization and haemolytic disease of foetus and new born (p-value<0.0001). Immunoglobulin prophylaxis status was 68.7% in urban and 40.1% out of Jimma. This study reveals the low health care facility of the population inhabiting out of Jimma. The prevalence of RhD alloimmunization was very high compared to developed countries. This was mainly due to the failure of immunoglobulin prophylaxis and due to various socio-economic conditions of the population.

Keywords: RhD alloimmunization, Haemolytic disease of the foetus and Newborn, Immunoglobulin prophylaxis.


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