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Dr. Rashmi Panwar, Dr. Ramesh Joshi and Dr. Bhanwar Lal Jat*


Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is economically important wind pollinated, evergreen, perennial dioecious shrub that attains a height of 3-5 m with leathery, grayish-green leaves. Besides its superior lubricating properties, Jojoba has attracted interest as a landscape and soil conservation plant. Its origin is the Sonora desert region of Arizona and California in the USA and the states of Sonora and Baja California in Mexico. Jojoba is an industrial crop that has attracted worldwide attention for several reasons like its seed contains a liquid wax which, in addition to several miscellaneous uses, can serve as a replacement of sperm whale oil, it is an extensively drought resistant species; it can grow in areas of marginal soil fertility, high atmospheric temperatures, high soil salinity, low humidity and low fertilizer requirements. In all habitats, including inland desert areas, Jojoba plants were observed to be physiologically active during the entire year, indicating their capacity in maintaining positive carbon balance even under severe drought at very low (-36 bar) water potential. Under greenhouse conditions, Jojoba was reported to maintain positive growth under stress conditions of up to- 70bars. In the present investigation, the adenine sulphate was added in the concentration ranges between 13.37μM to 81.33μM on the medium containing lower concentration of adenine sulphate from 13.37μM to 54.39μM, shoot regeneration was poor (4-5 shoots) with little increase in the growth of shoots to 20 mm in the period of 30-35 days. The MS medium containing 81.33μM Adenine sulphate with pre-optimized concentrations of BAP (11.02μM) and kinetin (11.61μM) was found optimum for shoot regeneration potential of axillary bud explants of Simmondsia chinensis. On which maximum number (8-9 shoots) of shoots were obtained which attained a height of 42.6+ 0.05mm. From the results of all the experiments conducted for multiplication of cultures from axillary bud explants of Simmondsia chinensis, it was found that BAP 13.79μM and kinetin 13.93μM and ADS 81.44μM in MS semisolid medium was found to be most suitable for high frequency multiplication of shoots for M-M and M-R. In present study the rate of multiplication was designated as multiplication to multiplication (M-M) and multiplication to rooting (MR). Once in a series of experimentations the BAP and kinetin was standardized and after optimization of concentration of BAP and kinetin for M-M and M-R then various concentrations of adenine sulphate was tried with them in combinations. The explants cultured on the medium containing the PGRs combination of 5.55μM BA + 7.1μM IAA took the minimum days, while those cultured on the medium containing 11.1μM BA+12.2μM IBA took the maximum days to bud sprout. The interaction between the PGRs combinations and the genotypes was also found statistically significant. The explants of PKJ-3 took the minimum time to bud sprout when they were cultured on 5.55μM BA + 7.1μM IAA, followed by those on the same PGRs combination. The explants took the maximum time when cultured on medium containing 11.1μM BA+12.2μM IBA. In the present study, zeatin was replaced by BA and it was combined with auxins in various concentrations, resultantly an improvement was recorded.

Keywords: Simmondsia chinensis, Jojoba, media, in vitro, axillary bud.

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