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Ravi Kumar Gupta and Ravi Kant Upadhyay*


Present review article elucidates various spider venom toxin types and their ion gated channel interactions and biological activities. Spider venom is a complex mixture of bioactive compounds such as enzymes, peptides, proteins, polyamines, salts and acids that show multiple biological effects in animals as well as in human. In present review recent information available on spider venom toxins i.e. Huwentoxin, Argitoxin: Guangxitoxin, Oxytoxin, Hainantoxin-1, Zinghaotoxin, Latrotoxins, Therophotoxin and their binding to a broad range of cellular targets with high affinity and selectivity, and remarkable structural diversity has been described in detail. Spider venom toxin peptides interact with ligand gated channels and modulate the activity of neuronal ion channels and receptors. These target voltage gated potassium K(V), calcium Ca(V) or sodium Na(V) channels. Spider-venom peptides target vertebrate or invertebrate Na(V) channels. They also target specific Na(V) channel subtypes that are considered to be important analgesic targets. No doubt spider venom peptides possess immense therapeutic potential against a wide range of pathophysiological conditions including cardiovascular disorders, chronic pain, inflammation and erectile dysfunction. However, after establishing interactions of these toxins with sodium channels could add the development of novel pain therapeutics. These can also use for development of more selective and potent hNaV1.7 inhibitors for treatment of chronic pain. By using molecular templates of spider toxins and using recent technologies spider toxins can be used for production of good therapeutic agents mainly antimicrobials, anticancer agents and bio-insecticides.

Keywords: Spider toxins, voltage gates, biological activity, analgesics, anticancer, antimicrobials, bio-insecticides.

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