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Abstract

WASP VENOM GENERATED TOXIC EFFECTS, ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES AND IMMUNOTHERAPY.

Krishna Kumar Prajapati and Ravi Kant Upadhyay*

ABSTRACT

Present review article aims to explain wasp venom toxins, its action on gated channels with toxic and immune allergic responses generated after envenomation. Wasp venom contains mixture of various bioactive compounds of diverse nature and function. It contains consist of few peptides certain elements, acids, amines, peptides mainly pain producing peptides such as kinins and chemotactic peptides like mastoparans or crabrolin and enzyme proteins including many types of hydralases (proteases, hyluronidase, phosphatases, nucleotidases, phospholypases A) as well as allergens and neurotoxins. Present review article emphasize wasp venom induced symptoms, inhibitory effects on electro physiology of ion channels and various receptors. It also describes wide range of physiological effects on nerve transmission, ionic regulation, electrophysiological and serological changes. Wasp venom toxic substances to infiltrate the tissues and rupture the blood cells and generate IgE mediated hypersensitivity and toxicity to the tissues. This review also describes non-allosteric interaction of wasp venom toxins to receptor binding sites to synaptic vesicles, and voltage dependent antagonism, inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and selective blocking of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. This review also suggests therapeutic and pharmacological uses of wasp venom templates for production bio-insecticides, antibiotics and analgesics. The natural substances purified from wasp venom can be used as important pharmacological tools or powerful probes for diagnostic techniques to explore complex biological processes of pharmaceutical importance. Various toxin structures from wasp venom can be used to make new drug design on suitable three-dimensional templates for creating small molecules/ or pharmaceuticals of great therapeutic importance.

Keywords: Wasp venom toxins, peptides, proteins, channel inhibitors, allergens, immunotherapy.


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