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Abstract

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF “PTEROLOBIUM HEXAPETALUM (ROTH.) SANT. AND WAGH.”

Kavitha B. and Yasodamma N.*

ABSTRACT

Pterolobium hexapetalum “Yerracheeki” is an herbal medicine used by the Chenchu tribes of Nallamalai region against diarrhoea, skin and veneral diseases, cold and cough, jaundice, bone fractures and ulcers. Phytochemical screening of all parts resulted important secondary metabolites like flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and steroids. Also showed antibacterial activity against four pathogenic bacteria with aqueous and methanol extracts effectively at 0.312 to 1.25 mg of MIC values to that of Gentamycin and antifungal activity against two strains with 0.312 and 0.625 mg of MIC values compared to Nystatin. Hence various plant parts have been tested for their morphological, physicochemical, histochemical and qualitative analysis of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanidins to standardize the crude drug for future formulations and also as a check for adulteration. Qualitative analysis resulted 38 phenols, 12 flavonoids and 10 anthocyanidins components in all parts. Histochemistry proved the distribution of various phytoconstituents in all parts supported various herbal formulations of each part. Especially Phenols like protocatechuic acid acts as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory; Chlorogenic acid as antimicrobial; p-hydroxy benzoic acid antifungal also acts as anti rheumatic antipyretic; Ferulic acids as antioxidants and antifungal; Scopoletin and vanilic acid as antimicrobial; Melilotic acid and syringic acid against hepatoprotective and antimicrobial; Coumarins against inflammations, hypertension, osteoporosis and analgesic; Salicylic acid antiinflammatory; Cinnamic acid as antifungal, flavonoids like myricetin reduces prostate cancer and jaundice. Quercetin and kaempferol anti-inflammatory; Luteolin, orientin and vitexin reduces respiratory disorders and chronic bronchitis; Anthocyanidins like delphinidin is major component used in ophthalmic disorders. Cyanidin and peonidin are responsible to reduce cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Hence the herbal drugs are proved as the best anti microbial against pathogenic bacteria which causes skin diseases, liver damage, bronchial disorders, haemorrhages, inflammations, arthritis, ulcers as used by the herbalists. The herbal formulations are further recommended for testing in the respective bioactivity to prove scientifically for future studies in the isolation of bioactive compounds and in drug designing.

Keywords: Phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, ash values, extractive values, qualitative analysis.


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