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Abstract

PREVALENCE OF BRUXISM IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

Ashraf Tashakori, Forough Riahi, Roya Haiati*

ABSTRACT

Background: Bruxism is an involuntary movement of the lower jaw, occurring during the day or night. This condition causes many side effects (e.g. dental problems, craniofacial muscle pain, etc.) which could have different effects on a person's quality of life. The prevalence of bruxism is higher during childhood and is observed in almost 40% of the child population. There are many risk factors associated with this disorder, and recently attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also believed to be involved in determining the risk of bruxism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of symptoms and risk factors associated with bruxism in ADHD patients compared to healthy individuals. Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted on 200 children (100 children with ADHD and 100 healthy controls), who were referred to the psychiatric ward of Ahvaz Golestan hospital, Iran. Children were initially examined by a psychiatrist regarding to ADHD development. Finally, the prevalence of symptoms and risk factors associated with bruxism were investigated from the parents using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of bruxism in patients with ADHD and the control group were 35% and 25%, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.16). In addition, the prevalence of symptoms and risk factors associated with bruxism did not show significant differences between ADHD patients and healthy subjects. However, the symptoms of nocturnal bruxism such as chewing muscle pain during sleep were significantly higher in ADHD patients taking methylphenidate. Discussion: Based on these findings, it appears that ADHD itself has no role in developing the bruxism symptoms, but medication given to such patients (methylphenidate) increased the problems related to this condition.

Keywords: Methylphenidate, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bruxism.


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