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Dr. Bhanwar Lal Jat*, Dr. Rashmi Panwar, Dr. Dilip Gena Tariq Samad Bhat and Rajveer Singh Rawat


Bacopa monnieri is a perennial, creeping herb whose habitat includes wetlands and muddy shores. Quite frequent in mashes throughout India ascending to 1600m. A small, prostrate and fleshy herb. The leaves are sessile, soft, succulent, Reni form, obovate-oblong or spatulate, up to 2.5mm long, with obscure venation. The lower surface is punctuate and entire. The stem is 10-30 cm long and 1-2 mm thick, with soft ascending branches. Flowers blue or white with purple views, axillary and solitary on peduncles usually` longer than leaves, with linear bracteoles. Fruits ovoid capsule included in the persistent calyx. Leaf venation: Both the epidermises with straight anticlinal walls are provided with thin cuticle sunken spherical multicellular sessile, glandular trichomes filled with yellowish green content, surrounded by the radiating row of cells. Stomata are annocytic type present on both surface of the epidermis, numerous in the lower surface. Stem provided with epidermis and cuticle. Ground tissue is parenchymatous. Xylem is in the form of a closed cylinder. Saponins and triterpenes- Dammaranes such as the bacosides and bacosaponins based on the bacogenins A1 – A5 are most important constituents. These include bacosides A, B, and C with bacoside â€Å¾A‟ constituting about 2.5 – 3%. Bacoside A produceebelin lactone on acid hydrolysis and yields jujubogenin on degredation. Bacopasaponin D, the Bacopasaponins E and F, Hersaponins and monnierin have also been reported, together with the triterpenes, betulic acid, bacosines B sitosterol, stigmastonol and stigmasterol. Alkolids :Brahmine and herpestin are present in the aerial parts. Flavonoids such as glucuronyl -7-Epigenin and glucuronyl -7- luteolin are present along with luteolin -7- glucoside and luteolin. According to Ayurveda, it is bitter, pungent, heating, emetic, laxative, and useful in bad ulcers, tumors, enlargement of spleen, indigestion, leprosy, anemia etc. According to Unani system of medicine, it is bitter, good in scabies, leucoderma, syphilis etc. It is promising blood purifier and useful in diarrhea and fevers. Bacopa appears to strengthen memory and improve concentration by enhancing the conductive of nerve tissue. It is commonly found Indian herb commonly given to infants to boost memory power intelligence and mental health. It is said that the use of Bacopa for memory enhancement goes back years or more in India, when it was cited for its medicinal properties, especially the memory – enhancing capacity. Studies show that bacope has strong antioxidant properties, protects mental function in those with epilepsy who take the drug phenytoin, while a study on rate showed Bacopa administration improves learning skills. The explants of Bacopa monnieri cultured in M.S media with different PGR induced the shoots and callus formation. The shoots tips responded more towards the shoots formation and the nodes responded more towards the callus information. Among different explant used shoots tips showed maximum response towards the growth as compared to nodes and inter nodes. Different series showed different growth response for e.g. GB1, GB2, GB4 and GB7 induced the callus formation, while as GB2 induced the callus as well as shoot information and GB3, GB6 induced the shoot regeneration. The callus morphology, shoot formation and root formation was influenced by the type of PGR and concentration in the media. Here we observed that BAP in combination with NAA respectively did not evoked any shoot or root formation. Its influence on callus morphology was quite clear from observation. In the initial stages after sub culturing, the MS+BAP+IAA+ MS+BAP+IBA, MS+NAA+Kinetin, MS+IAA+Kinetin and MS+IBA + Kinetin showed very less response towards the root formation but showed very good response in the latter state.

Keywords: MS, PGR, KN, NAA, IAA, IBA, 2, 4-D, Bacopamonneri.

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