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Abstract

PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND CARDIOVASCULAR TOXIC EFFECTS INVESTIGATION OF ROOT BARKS POWDER AND EXTRACTS FROM CALOTROPIS PROCERA (AIT.) R.BR.

Geoffroy G. Ouedraogo*, Sylvain Ilboudo, Noufou Ouedraogo, Sylvin Ouedraogo, Drissa Diallo and Pierre I. Guissou

ABSTRACT

Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. (Apocynaceae, APGIII) is a small shrub widely used in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Burkina Faso in the treatment of various diseases such as sickle cell disease, asthmatic disease, cancer. Like its therapeutic virtues, Calotropis procera is also known for its toxicity, especially on the cardiovascular system. The objective of this study was to assess the likely toxic effects of the aqueous extract of the root barks of the plant on the cardiovascular system in vivo. For this, a phytochemical screening was carried out on the powder of the plant’s root barks. Also, an assessment of cardiovascular toxicity by measuring of blood pressure and heart rate was carried out using tail cuff method in Wistar rats treated daily with the extract for two weeks. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of numerous chemical groups including cardenolides. The assessment of cardiovascular toxicity showed that the aqueous extract of the plant at dose of 20 mg / kg causes a transient elevation in systolic and mean arterial pressure of rats treated during the first 3 days of treatment (P <0.001 versus control) followed by a return to basic values after one week. However there was no effect on the diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Given these results, the aqueous extract of the plant does not presents major toxic effects on the cardiovascular system in vivo. But, the study of cardiovascular toxic effects should be continued for a safe use of this plant in pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: Calotropis procera, cardenolides, cardiovascular effects.


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