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Abstract

ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF Setaria megaphylla (STEUD) T. DUR AND SCHINZ (POACEAE)

*John A. Udobang, Jude E. Okokon and Emmanuel U. Etuk

ABSTRACT

Background: Setaria megaphylla (Steud) T. Dur and Schinz
(Poaceae), is a medicinal plant used in South-South Nigeria to treat
malaria, hemorrhoids, urethritis, inflammation, diabetes, fevers and
various pains.[1] While some researches have been carried out to
authenticate the uses of the leaves of the plant, very little research has
been done on the root and no publication has been found on its root
fractions. Objectives: This work is therefore designed to authenticate
analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the roots of Setaria
megaphylla to ascertain folkloric claims of its medicinal usefulness.
Methodology: The ethanol extract was also partitioned in n-hexane,
dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol in the order listed above
to obtain fractions. Qualitative data of dichloromethane and n-butanol
fractions were determined by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The root
extract (150, 300, 450 mg/kg) was investigated for analgesic activity against chemical and
heat induced pains and anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan, fresh egg albumin and
xylene - induced edema. Results: Significant (p < 0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent effects were
observed against carrageenan, egg albumin and xylene -induced inflammation and acetic acid
-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and hot plate-induced pain in mice.
Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that the ethanol root extract of S. megaphyll possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities through its phytochemical components. This therefore justifies its ethnomedicinal usage in the treatment of various pain and inflammations.

Keywords: Analgesic, Antiiflammatory, Setaria megaphylla, medicinal plant.


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