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Abstract

CRUDE AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE AND DENNETTIA TRIPETALA: EFFECTS ON ORAL ORGANISMS AND POSSIBLE INCLUSION IN TOOTHPASTES.

Kyrian-Ogbonna Evelyn A.*, Nwobu Reuben A.U., Chidi-Onuorah Lilian C., Okafor Ugochukwu C. and Ilikannu Samuel O.

ABSTRACT

Oral infections continue to pose health threats despite improvements in oral hygiene in recent times. This work was aimed at studying the antimicrobial effects of A. occidentale and D. tripetla which are used in the treatment of oral infections locally. Crude and ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale and Dennettia tripetala were tested in vitro using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from patients attending Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Awka, Dental Clinic. A new toothpaste (NT) was prepared according to formulations by Colgate-Palmolive® Thailand with commercial toothpaste ingredients and tested alone and in combination with extracts on the organisms. All extracts showed antimicrobial activity on isolates with mean zones of inhibition ranging from 7±1.00 mm of ethanol extract of D. tripetala in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa to 26±0.71mm of ethanol extract of A. occidental in S. mutans. S. aureus showed the highest sensitivity of 28.0% to all extracts as compared to E. coli of 13.0%. Activity of D. tripetla was generally low. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) ranged from 31.25mg/ml ethanol extract of A. occidentale in S. mutans to 500mg/ml of aqueous extract of D. tripetala on E. coli while the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) ranged from 500 and above for most of the extracts. The newly formulated toothpaste exhibited little activity on the isolates and there was a significant difference (p< 0.05) in its activity when the extracts were added to it. These extracts have potentials for use by industries to minimize reliance on synthetic antibiotics.

Keywords: Oral infections, A. occidental, D. tripetala, Antimicrobial activity, Toothpaste.


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