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Abstract

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED CONSTITUENTS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS.

Fouzia Rafat*, Beauty Kumari1 and Kumar Anand

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals. The phytochemical screenings of chloroform, aqueous and alcoholic plant extracts of rhizome of Curcuma longa and leaves of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Momordica charantia were performed using standard phytochemical techniques for the determination of the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins etc.. It showed that chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts gave positive tests for alkaloids, proteins and phytosterols. Methanol and ethanol extracts were found to contain phenolic compounds. Aqueous extract gave positive test for saponins. Methanol, ethanol and aqueous extract gave positive test for carbohydrates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts was investigated against soil bacteria. The ability of rhizome of Curcuma longa, and leaves of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Momordica charantia extracts to inhibit the growth of test pathogen is an indication of their broad spectrum antimicrobial potential which may be employed in the management of microbial infections. The seasonal variations of total ash and acid insoluble ash have been investigated in selected constituents of plants, which are medicinally important. Comparative account of total ash and acid insoluble ash content showed higher value of total ash of leaves of Momordica charantia (15.86%) and lower value of total ash of rhizome of Curcuma longa (8.36%) while the acid insoluble ash showed higher value of leaves of Momordica charantia (5.96%) and lower value of leaves of Ocimum sanctum (1.22%).

Keywords: Phytochemical, Antimicrobial activity, Ash value, Curcuma longa, etc.


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