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Abdulkhalig Babiker Hassan, Abdelhafiz Ibrahim Bashir, Haneen Ali Almutairi*, Rakan Fraih Almuazzi, Kalaf Jaze Alshammeri and Ali Ghnnam Alrashidi


Zika virus was known after the scientists carried a routine surveillance for yellow fever in the Zika forest at Uganda where they isolated Zika virus from a monkey (1947).[1] and thereafter discovered in human in Uganda (1964).[2] Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family; it contains a positive, single-stranded genomic RNA where it replicates in the cellular cytoplasm.[2-5] It is a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, especially by the Aedes aegypti species.[1, 3-5, 7, 8] in America epidemics with both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.[3] Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are commonly found in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. These mosquito vectors typically breed in domestic water-holding containers; they are daytime biters and feed both indoors and outdoors near dwellings.[7] The risk of sexual transmission of Zika virus is thought to be low, but male-to-female sexual transmission has been reported,[4, 7] Other transmission modes are still under investigation.[8] The first large outbreak of disease caused by Zika infection was reported from the Island of Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) in 2007. During a 2013- 14 outbreak in French Polynesia. In South America, the first reports of locally transmitted infection came from Brazil in 2015. By 2016, local transmission of Zika infection had been reported from more than 20 countries and territories in the Americas and an outbreak numbering thousands of cases was under way in Cabo Verde, western Africa.[1,2] Outbreaks linked with neurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly across the Pacific region and the Americas.[1, 6] In Asia Zika virus strains (from Cambodia, Malaysia and Thailand) and in Africa (from Nigeria, Senegal, and Uganda) where two geographically distinct lineages of the virus, African and Asian, are identified (1). Epidemiological studies point to a widespread distribution of ZIKV in the northern half of the African continent, as well as in many countries in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, India, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Pakistan.[2, 6] Central and South America, Caribbean and Mexico.[5, 6, 9] The estimated incubation period of the disease is up to 14 days.[4] or typically 3-12 days.[7] Up to 80% of infections are asymptomatic (3 and 14). Main symptoms are fever, skin rash. Other symptoms may appear like diarrhea or vomiting, dehydration and joint pain, rapidly followed by death.[1] in addition to conjunctivitis.[2] myalgia and headache.[1, 3, 5, 6, 8] and retro-orbital pain; pruritus.[4, 7] In pregnant women symptoms and signs of clinical illness include two or more of the following: fever; rash; arthralgia/arthritis; conjunctivitis; myalgia; headache; retro-orbital pain; pruritus where infection may be associated with fetal microcephaly and other congenital anomalies.[4, 6] There are no reports at this time of infants becoming infected through breastfeeding (8). Guillain-Barré syndrome reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection, but relationship to Zika virus infection is not known.[1, 5, 7] These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.[6, 8] or acute symptoms typically resolve within 4-7 days.[7] There is no specific antiviral treatment available.[3-5, 7, 8] Treatment is generally supportive and can include rest, fluids and use of analgesics and antipyretics.[7] There is no vaccine to prevent Zika virus infections.[3-5, 8] The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.[3, 8] Increase awareness among health professionals who provide prenatal care of the possible association of Zika virus and microcephaly and adapt prenatal monitoring in accordance with the exposure to the vector. Advise all travellers to affected areas to take individual protective measures to prevent mosquito bites in addition a pregnant woman should visit health care providers.[3-5, 7, 8]

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