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Sultan Ali Khoso, Shaista Khan, Naseem Aslam, Samreen Memon, Gul Muneer, Fawad ahmed and Munir Ahmed Shaikh


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of saliva flow rate (SFR) and pH of addictive substance users (tobacco chewers, cigarette smokers, naswar dippers, hashish smokers, bhang users and alcohol users) METHODOLOGY: The study comprised 49 Subjects which were involved in as addictive substance users (ASU) and these individuals were divided into 06 different groups, group 01 comprised the cigarette & hashish smokers (22%), group 02 contained tobacco chewers (34%), group 03 were naswar dippers (10%), group 04 were sweetened areca nut chewers (10%), group 05 comprised the bhang users (12%), whereas group 06 involved alcohol users (10%). The average age of the individuals included in this study (21.1 ±3.63 to 26.2 ±2.38). Saliva before and after consumption of addictive substances and serum samples were collected from each ASU. RESULTS: The average age of the alcohol users was high (26.2±2.38) as compared to the other 05 groups while reversed was true for tobacco chewers (21.1±3.63). The ratio of consumption of addictive substance was high in unmarried about 76.47% whereas married were 23.52%. A significantly increased salivary flow rate (SFR) was found after consumption of chewing tobacco and areca nut as compared to before its consumption. 33.33% headache was common among all ASU, Addictions related to chewing process (chewing tobacco, naswar, Areca nut) showed significant variation between before and after addiction salivary pH of ASU. Overall, we found a significant increased salivary pH of tobacco chewers after consumption (8.0±0.45) whereas before consumption (7.27±0.69), while cigarette smokers and hashish smoker showed the decreased salivary pH after consumption of these substances. Conclusion: Students were highly involved in addictions as compared to other occupations, students of age 21 years were positively associated with addictive substance usage, Naswar was the cheapest addictive substance among all other addictive substances; headache was common in ASU and 3.92% ASU showed kidney disease followed by liver diseases with other diseases, Overall, we found a significant increased salivary pH of ASU after addiction as compared to controls.

Keywords: Bakeries; addiction, ASU, salivary flow rate (SFR), tobacco.

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