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Abstract

EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF RAW ALOE VERA LEAVES: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES IN INDIAN PALM SQUIREL (FUNAMBULUS PENNATI) AND ANABAS

Dr. Bishnu Charan Pradhan* and Dr. Bharat Bhusan Mahapatra

ABSTRACT

Aloe vera is used worldwide for several medical purposes as alternative medicine. There are positive and negative reports on the hypoglycaemic effects of this plant. Forty-five juvenile Anabas and 30 weanling Squirel (Funambulus penniti) exposed to water containing 50, 100 and 150ppm of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves for 96 hours and 28 days, respectively were used for this study. Fifteen Anabas fish and 10 Squirel (Funambulus penniti) exposed to clean water (0 ppm A. vera) served as controls. Clinical signs, mortality, gross and histologic organ pathology in the Anabas fish; weekly haematology, plasma biochemical parameters and organ pathology were monitored in the Squirel (Funambulus penniti). Anabas fish cultured in water containing A. vera exhibited erratic swimming patterns, rapid opercular movements, skin depigmentation and died within 24-96 hours. Gross and histologic tissue lesions in the test Anabas fish include skin depigmentation, pale and shriveled gills, dull, opaque and sunken eyes, stunting and clubbing of gill filaments, vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of gill epithelial cells, hyaline degeneration and necrosis of myofibrils, calcification of vasa vasori, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis. Haematologic and plasma biochemical changes in test Squirel (Funambulus penniti) include moderate to severe normocytic normochromic anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, increased AST levels, and decreased cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Gross and histologic tissue lesions include mild to moderate pulmonary congestion, flabbiness of the heart, hepatomegaly, mottling of kidneys, vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, periportal fibrosis, glomerular and tubular degeneration and necrosis, matting and clubbing of small intestinal villi, catarrhal enteritis and goblet cell hyperplasia. The severity of these changes increased with increasing concentrations of A. vera. No mortality, gross or histologic changes were observed in both control fish and Squirel (Funambulus penniti) Results from this study show that consumption of water containing extracts of raw A. vera is very toxic to Anabas fish and Squirel (Funambulus penniti). The serious health implication for human consumption of raw A. vera is discussed.

Keywords: Aloe vera, Anabas, Squirel (Funambulus penniti) alternate medicine, human health implications.


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