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Abstract

ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF TECOMA STANS, GLYPHAEA BREVIS, GARCINIA KOLA, ZANTHOXYLUM MACROPHYLLA AND GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM ROOT BARK

Chinaka N.C.*, Monago-Ighorodje C.C., Chuku L.C., Nzom U.G., Ohagwu U.S., Okparoka C.C.

ABSTRACT

Background: The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Tecoma stans (TS), Glyphaea brevis (GB), Garcinia kola (GK), Zanthoxylum macrophylla (ZM) and Gongronema latifolium (GL) root bark were assayed by measuring the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion (O2 .-) radical and nitric oxide (NO.) radical scavenging capabilities of the extracts. Materials and Methods: The plants obtained from Nsukka, Nigeria, were identified and analysed using standard reagent and equipments. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 and significant level was set at P<0.05. Results: TS was most efficient at concentration dependent DPPH radical inhibitory potential, maximally inhibiting 66.99±2.13% compared to ascorbic acid (AA) (90.27±1.81%) at 500μg/ml. GS was most efficient at maximal inhibition of 68.92±3.68% compared to AA (91.33±6.22%) at 1000μg/ml. GK, inhibits 63.33±3.12% of DPPH compared to AA’s 90.27±1.81% at 500μg/ml. ZM was most efficient, maximally inhibiting 65.93±2.63% compared to AA (91.33±6.22) at 1000μg/ml, while GL was most efficient, maximally inhibiting 59.47±0.55 compared to AA (91.33±6.22%) at 1000μg/ml. The IC50 was 69.02, 210.37, 206.53, 110.41 and 415.91μg/ml respectively compared to AA (37.06μg/ml). The extracts respectively inhibited the formation of reduced nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT). TS, ZM, and GL showed a maximum O2.- inhibitory activity of 49.15±1.21, 40.40±2.33 and 41.70±3.35% respectively, compared to quercetin (91.33±5.38%) at 1000μg/ml. GB and GK showed maximum inhibitory activity of 29.41±0.19 and 47.40±0.09%, compared to quercetin (90.27±12.70%). The IC50 for O2.- inhibition of TS, GB, GK, ZM and GL were 387.25, 4226.86, 562.34, 2582.26 and 408.10μg/ml respectively compared to quercetin 42.65μg/ml. NO. scavenging capacity of TS and ZM were concentration dependent, scavenging most efficiently (117.2±2.41 and 115.09±1.11%) at 250μg/ml compared to α-tocopherol (138.5±2.90%), while GL scavenged 91.02±2.69% compared to α-tocopherol (109.21±1.17%) at 200μg/ml. Conclusion: The results suggest that the extracts possess significant (p<0.05) antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities, hence beneficial to health.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, ?-tocopherol, antioxidant, free radicals, scavenging.


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