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Essien U. C.*, Odineze O. M., Sheyin Z., Ede F. R., Vem T.S.


Background: Garlic has been recognized not only as a spice but also as a substance which exhibit antimicrobial properties. There are several reports on the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against many genera of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. These pharmacological properties have been ascribed to the presence of the bioactive principle (allicin) in garlic. Because many of the microorganisms are susceptible to garlic extract, garlic holds a promising position as a broad-spectrum therapeutic agent Objectives: The present study was aimed to determine the invitro activity of garlic extract on some bacterial pathogens. Materials and methods: Garlic plants were bought from a popular vegetable market (Farin gada market) in Jos, Nigeria. The plant identification was done at the Federal college of Forestry, Jos, Nigeria. The garlic extracts were prepared by cold maceration using methanol and distilled water. The antibacterial activity of garlic extracts was determined by agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for garlic extracts was obtained by tube dilution method. Result: The antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol garlic extract revealed Escherichia coli as the most susceptible organism with zone diameter of 24.2±14.2mm. E.coli also exhibit highest sensitivity to positive control drug (ciprofloxacin) with zone diameter of 24.6±15.6mm. Pseudomonas aeruginosa appears to be resistance to all the garlic extract except for sundried garlic extract that showed activity at 100mg/ml with zone diameter 2.6±3.6mm. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extracts were 5.6mg/ml to 40mg/ml and 6.5mg/ml to 15.0mg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated the antibacterial activity of garlic extract on some bacterial isolates. In addition, the use of garlic for infection and control appears to be justified.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration, garlic extract, Escherichia coli.

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