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Abstract

PARASITAEMIA REDUCTION AND MODERATELY IMPROVED HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES POTENTIALS OF HIPPOCRATEA AFRICANA ROOT BARK EXTRACT IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEIBERGHEI INFECTED MICE

*Jessie Idongesit Ndem and Utibe Evans Bassey

ABSTRACT

The effect of Hippocratea africana root bark extract on parasitemia
concentration and haematological indices of Plasmodium bergheiberghei
induced mice was investigated. Thirty-five albino mice
weighing between 17g to 29g were divided into 7 groups with 5 mice
in each group. Group 1 served as normal control while Groups 2 – 7
were parasitized with P. berghei-berghei obtained from a donor mouse
with a parasitaemia of 5 x 107. Group 2 served as infected control
while Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally administered 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg and 300mg/kg of H. africana respectively daily for 4 days.
Groups 6 and 7 received therapeutic doses of chloroquine and
artesunate respectively. There was significant reduction in the
parasitaemia of the extract treated groups, with 200mg/kg of H. africana showing the highest
clearance of 89.8%. Artesunate showed 100% clearance being the standard drug for malaria
treatment. Haematological indices of plasmodium infected mice were severely altered before
treatments compared with the normal control. The results of the study showed that WBC
counts in the extract treated groups increased non-significant (p > 0.05) except in Group 5
compared with Group 2. Non-significant (p > 0.05) increase in RBC counts, HGB
concentration and HCT levels were observed in the extract treated group compared with
parasitized untreated Group 2. MCH and MCHC levels changed non-significantly in the
treated groups compared with Group 2 while platelet counts were increased non-significantly
in the extract treated groups when compared with the parasitized untreated group. The
ethanol extract of root bark of Hippocratea africana has a potent antimalarial activity against
Plasmodium berghei-berghei and does not negatively affect the haematological indices of the infected mice beyond the derangement already induced by the parasite but moderately improves it.

Keywords: Hippocratea africana, Malaria, Plasmodium berghei-berghei, Haematology, Antiplasmodial Activity.


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