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Abstract

PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL ACTION OF RHEIN AND ITS DIVERSE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Wang ZHOU, Guy-Armel BOUNDA, Feng YU*

ABSTRACT

Herbal medicines are widely used in clinical research due to their three “low-effect”: Low toxicity, low number of side effects, and low cost. Many components of common plants, fruits, vegetables, molds, and lichens have been well-documented for their various bioactivities. Rhein (1,8-dihydroxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone) is a natural occurring anthraquinone derivative isolated from roots and barks of Polygonaceae family plants, e.g., Rheum palmatum and Polygonum multiflorum. Rhein has been known to possess purgative, vasorelaxant, anti-bacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous, antitumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, neuroprotection, hepatoprotection, and nephroprotection activities. Rhein also exerts antifeedant and tumorigenic activity. These bioactivities of rhein have been exhibited in various in vitro as well in vivo experimental models. With its ability of pleiotropic effect, rhein is a bioactive molecule capable to interact with several molecular targets pathways including IL-1, p53, p21, TNF-α, IFNγ, LRX, SREBP-1c, MCP-1, CCR1, CCR2, ICAM, HVEM, p38 MAPK, NF-кB, IKB-α, LOX, COX, MAPK/AP-1, PPAR-γ, TGF-β, androgen receptors, and HER2/neu signaling, The present mini-review summarizes and presents the information concerning rhein and its various bioactivities and signaling pathways Involved in various diseases.

Keywords: Rhein, Hydroxyanthraquinones derivatives, Bioactivity, signaling pathways.


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