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Abstract

A REVIEW ON EBOLA VIRUS: SPECIFYING EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS AND ITS TREATMENT APPROACHS

Gajendra Vasu*, Nidhi Jain M.Pharm, Sapna Malviya Ph.D. and Anil Kharia

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90%). Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of Ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for Ebola hemorrhagic fever are as follows: Zaireebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Tai Forest ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Restonebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa Ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for Ebola virus is unknown, but on the basis of evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is animal-borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir. The Ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against Ebola virus infection in humans.

Keywords: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Vaccines, Outbreak, Marburg Virus, Filoviridae.


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