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Abstract

LIPOIDAL COMPOSITION AND BIOACTIVITY OF LEAVES AND BARKS OF SWIETENIA MAHOGANI AND SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA GROWN IN EGYPT

Ola Mohamed Mousa, Marwa Yousry Issa, Hesham Ibrahim El-Askary, Soheir
Mohamed El Zalabani and Amani A. Sleem

ABSTRACT

Ethanol (90%) extractives of leaves and stem barks of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were fractionated and comparatively examined regarding yield, lipoidal composition and bioactivity. Bark ethanol extractives were obtained in higher amounts than those of leaves. Lipoids were detected in the petroleum ether and chloroform-soluble fractions of ethanol extracts. Unsaponifiable lipoids (USL) and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of petroleum ether extracts were analyzed by GC/FID. Despite close qualitative similarity, GC profiles revealed quantitative variability. Relative percentage of identified phytosterols in S. macrophylla samples exceeded that in S. mahogani with prevalence of  -Sitosterol; meanwile n-Tricosane was the predominant hydrocarbon in all tested samples. Three known lipoids were isolated from S. macrophylla bark: n-nonacosane and β-sitosterol from the petroleum ether fraction of its ethanol (90%) extract and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside from the chloroform fraction. Identification of isolated compounds was through physicochemical, chromatographic and spectral data. S. macrophylla ethanol extracts were found more efficient as cytotoxic against the in vitrotested human cancer cell lines (liver, HEPG2; colon, HCT116 and brain, U251) with best efficiency exhibited on HCT116. Determined LD50s demonstrated the safety of all extracts in the range of the orally given doses. Prolonged administration of all extracts significantly decreased the level of liver enzymes in CCl4-intoxicated rats indicating a hepatoprotective activity. A moderate antipyretic effect was exerted by extracts of leaves only; and none of the samples exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect. The highest potency was, in most cases, observed for S. mahogani leaves extract particularly as antiulcer, antioxidant and hepatoprotective.

Keywords: Swietenia mahogani, Swietenia macrophylla, unsaponifiable lipoids, sterols, fatty acids, bioactivity.


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