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Abstract

MALLOTUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS (GEISEL.) M√úLL. ARG. AND PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS SCHUM. & THONN: THEIR PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR USAGE IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN AKWA IBOM STATE

E. A. Essiet, O. T. Umoh* and V. E. Uyoh

Abstract

The qualitative analysis of the phytochemical constituent of Mallotus oppositifolius leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phlobatanins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, terpenes and free anthraquinones for Phyllanthus amarus there were alkaloids, tannins, phlobatanins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, terpenes and combined anthraquinones. In the quantitative analysis, P. amarus was higher in contents of alkaloid (7.1%) and saponins (1.0%) than M. oppositifolius with alkaloid (3.0%) and saponins (0.5%). However, M. oppositifolius was higher in flavonoids (13%) and phenols (15%) than P. amarus which had, flavonoids (9%) and phenols (11%.) The quantitative phytochemical constituents of M. oppostifolius and P.amarus are moisture, ash, fibre, protein, lipids, CHO, caloric value, vitamin A and C. Anti-nutrient which are oxalate, HCN, phytate, tannins. Vitamin A and C of P. amarus are higher than that of M. oppositifolius. The presence of various active ingredients [secondary plant metabolites] as revealed by the phytochemical screening supports the resourcefulness of the plant extracts. The actions of secondary plant metabolites varied when ingested, for example, saponins have a positive role in cholesterol metabolism; while the presence of plant's oxalates in large doses causes irreversible oxalate nephrosis, hydrogen cyanide can kill when it exceeds the quantity needed in the system.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom State; anti-nutrient; Mallotus oppositifolius; phytochemical; Phyllanthus amarus.


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