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Abstract

GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM PLANT SEEDS: A REVIEW

R. Baskar*, S. Selvakumar and S. Dharmarajsanthosam

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Abstract

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles generates the use of plant constituents, like carbohydrates, fats, enzymes, flavonoids, terpenoids, polyphenols, and alkaloids, as reducing agents to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The seed extract of Tectona grandis (teak) is utilized for the reduction of 1 mM silver nitrate solution to silver nanoparticles. The technique is accepted to be very simple, cost-efficient, and convenient. The preparation of nanoparticles was verified by visual detection in which the colorless solution gets altered to a brown-colored solution. The green synthesis of nanoparticles utilizing plants and their extracts is declared as a representative approach in material synthesis for environmental benignity. Various metal nanoparticles with significant bioactivities have been produced and established on plant extracts. An eco-friendly method for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been reported by utilizing seed extract of Alpinia katsumadai. A facile and green route for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate and seed extracts of various vegetable seeds of the Brassicaceae family was demonstrated. The experimental parameters such as differences in seed extract concentration, temperature, stirring time, and pH were observed and optimum conditions of concentration (20ml), temperature (80 ̊C), and pH 8.5 were chosen for the preparation of NPs. The biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag/NPs) at various conditions utilizing hot water seed extract of Calendula officinalis as a reducing agent is documented. The result reveals that the Ag/NPs were observed to be amazingly stable even after four months. Packaging is one of the most vital issues considering food safety. Nanoscale technology can be utilized to enhance the quality of packaging components, thereby producing food safety. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized by utilizing a watery mixture of pomegranate seed extract and silver nitrate solution. Starch was utilized to synthesize starch nanoparticles (StNPs) in an aqueous 3.2 M H2SO4 solution as an abundant, cheap, and biodegradable polysaccharide. Because of the great economic, health, and medicinal importance, Phoenix dactylifera seeds were selected for the manufacture of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their eco-friendly, nonhazardous, cost-efficient advancement over physical and chemical techniques, as green methods are safe, one-step, and simple and did not need any chemical reducing and stabilizing agents. A new approach to the use of fruit waste is attempted in the present analysis. Mangifera indica seed aqueous extract was used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The phytoconstituents in the seed played as reducing and stabilizing agents for AgNP formation. The present study concentrated on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Putranjiva roxburghii seed. The pista seeds coat seed extract was examined for the existence of secondary metabolites and the generation of silver nanoparticles from the pista seed coat was showed by a color change from pale yellow to brown. Avicennia marina is the most abundant and broadly distributed mangrove species and has been utilized in traditional medicine for treating skin diseases, rheumatism, ulcers, and smallpox. However, the biomedical potential of its seed leavings is poorly characterized. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared from aqueous Avicennia marina seed extract. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved utilizing seed extract of Brassica nigra. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing seeds of Nigella sativa as a capping agent was examined in this work. Various concentrations of the aqueous extract of N. sativa with silver nitrate solution were revealed to sunlight; as a force for the acceleration of the formulation. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing the silver ions that exist in the solution of silver nitrate (0.001M) with aqueous seed extract of Sorghum bicolor. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles was achieved by utilizing Phyllanthus amarus Seeds. The coffee powder was utilized to prepare nanoparticles. Silver ions were observed to decrease with coffee extract and resulting in the generation of silver nanoparticle crystals. Silver nanoparticles are obtained by cherimoya seed extract play as both stabilizing & reducing agents in an aqueous solution. The arrangement of silver nanoparticles was noted by a change of color from pale yellow to dark brown.

Keywords: Seeds, Silver nitrate, nanoparticles.


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